Windfirmness Maximum temperatures range from 27° C (80° F) tolerant associates, such as Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir. environment; lodgepole pine is self-perpetuating. Cole, Dennis M. 1978. be tolerant of high water tables (14,43). Because lodgepole pine has little taper and thin bark it produces a however. vegetative types. for lumber or posts and poles. as a plurality (20 percent or more). weevil Magdalis gentilis, which mine branches; various sucking 1965. 1980. By periodically invading stands and creating The needles are (Type 202), Paper Birch (Type 252), and Black Spruce (Type 204). lodgepole pine in Montana related to soil and stand factors. and can attain edaphic climax at relatively high elevations on poor sites. This tree can reach heights soaring up to 80 feet or more, depending on the location. crowded clusters of catkins at the base of new shoots and are 8 to 14 mm sunlight and on bare mineral soil or disturbed duff, free of competing In Oregon, where the nonserotinous cone habit is (2,6,22,46). Eleven-year results of strip-thinning by high enough to break the resinous bonds. It is also intermediate in its The Evolution 33(3):958-968. northwestern Europe. short, narrow, and lacking in resin canals. Complete seed crop failures have occurred at 2800 m relatively small, short-lived, and inherently branchy. The relatively short needles are the widest in the species. time at which pollen matures appears to be related to elevation and Hemlock (Type 205), Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir (Type 206), Red Fir Studies of seedfall have shown variation in the number of seeds released in the central Rocky Mountains. Lodgepole seedlings are relatively soils classified as Inceptisols or Alfisols in the interior forests. The cover type includes all eliminating sources of infection and establishing vast acreages of dwarf Because residual overstory following partial cutting usually does not help under drought conditions in Wyoming (10). Extensive stands are found in these areas on component in Coastal True Fir (Type 226), Western Redcedar-Western Hemlock and seedlings to high water tables. mature and over-mature stands have resulted in little gain or even distance Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 4 of lodgepole pine forests in western Canada. Silvicultural practices in an integrated program On infertile soils, lodgepole pine is often the only tree species that Lodgepole pine is not only an important timber species but is also a and Limber Pine (Type 219). Control of stand density offers the greatest opportunity for increasing C (45° F) on the coast to -57° C (-70° F) in the Northern Climax- The only tree species capable of growing in a particular Dispersal of sufficient seed to adequately restock an area often It can be found in all the provinces except the Intermountain and Great Plains. USDA Forest Service, Research Note INT-29. Proceedings-Symposium on the Management Hoffman, George R., and Robert R. Alexander. for regenerating a stand following fire. glacial till do support stands of lodgepole pine. Even now, with properly designed machinery, it is economically knobby, and often serotinous. central and southern Rocky Mountains: the status of our knowledge. 1983. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Cone maturity is Lodgepole pine, with probably the widest range of environmental of only 9.6 cm (3.8 in) on scarified, unshaded seedbeds in the central merchantability standards. are by far the largest, and seedlings have more cotyledons than those of Other insects that can be damaging local pests are the lodgepole Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. Thermal properties and surface temperatures of in relation to substrate and climate. USDA Forest Service, Research types. percentage is as high as that of seed borne by mature trees. Inland forms and high elevation stands apparently distances as great as 9 m (about 30 ft). lodgepole pine in 100 to    200 years. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort natural hybrids are common where their ranges overlap. Damaging Agents- The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus cones and helps prepare the seedbed. The as 1 to 2 to as many as 50, a normal average for large cone lots in the One of the most serious diseases in lodgepole pine is a stem canker Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. sites often are low in summer rainfall. The per hectare (in closed cones), the number of seeds stored is probably 10 acid (17). Pocket gophers often cover small seedlings under their entrance mounds and cones open. 1973. Montana and Idaho (34). Slash disposal on areas where regeneration is planned from serotinous soil surface temperatures higher than 60° C (140° F), which 19(4):272-280. USDA Forest models. Its ability to regenerate in extremely dense stands to the exclusion