8.5 to approx. The research is published in the journal Nature Climate Change dated March 2012. The result was that in just a century or two, the debris became coated or even cemented together by secondary minerals. If you visit the famous china clay-pits of Cornwall, which exploit altered and weathered granite, you will find that it is the feldspar that has decomposed: the waste-heaps left after the kaolinite (one of the weathering-products) has been extracted are the residual, relatively unscathed quartz and mica. Of these, 87Sr is radiogenic, which means that it has been formed by radioactive decay of an unstable isotope of another element, in this case rubidium 87. 2. 3. How much energy will it take to pump that much water from the Pacific up to the Great Basin? On a year-to-year basis, the process of rock-weathering is a slow one. How can you compare the amount of CO2 your scheme would remove to the CO2 those currents absorb? That is the balance of the sides of Urey reaction you've shown, is self regulating: e.g. As they say, if you aren't part of the solution, you're part of the precipitate... Bob Loblaw - thank you - (I sure hope I'm soluble enough to help) - but I assume those types of deposits form under rather restricted/special conditions - a body of water has to be isolated from the rest of the ocean to some extent (maybe not completely - epeiric seas) so that it can dry up enough to form NaCl deposits, for example (I don't know as much about potash). The gradual decline of RCO2 on your last figure in Ga timescale can also be thought as said "thermostat at work", because the sun's intensity has increased signifficantly during that time. So let's now take a look at what happens. part may be reproduced without the written permission. Strontium has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes as follows (abundances in brackets): 84Sr (0.56%), 86Sr (9.86%), 87Sr (7.0%) and 88Sr (82.58%). The resulting solution, which reaches the surface as rainwater, is weakly acidic: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 (or carbonic acid - the old name for carbon dioxide was carbonic acid gas). That carbon is thereby locked away and immobilised for a very long time. The ratio of 87Sr and 86Sr is the one used in the context of weathering: in igneous rocks like basalt it is typically around 0.704 but in other rock-types it is a little higher. Other acids may also be present: for example, sulphur dioxide, outgassed during volcanic eruptions or released by industry, likewise dissolves in droplets of water in the atmosphere to produce sulphuric acid, hence the term 'acid rain', with a pH of around 4 to 4.5. What did 1970’s climate science actually say? Scale of the proposal, by comparison to an existing pumping structure, 1/3 of the electricity used in California, year to year, is employed to power the Edmonston Pumping Station, which lifts fresh water across the Tehachapies, from Northern to Southern California, Total flow at design head: 315 ft³/s (9 m³/s) (per unit), Flow at design head: 315 ft³/s (9 m³/s) (per uniit), Total flow at design head: 4410 ft³/s (450,000 m³/h) (Combined), Total Motor rating: 1,120,000 hp (835 MW)[2], Hypothesizing broadly, a 3/4 to 1 gigawatt power plant, could lift 1/3 the water, or ~1470 cu. Aragonite is also precipitated in the oceans - molluscs use it to build their shells and corals their endoskeletons - but it has a much shallower compensation depth which varies from less than 1000m in some low latitudes to over 3000m in the North Atlantic. This post delves into the long-term carbon cycle that involves the interactions of the atmosphere with rocks and oceans over many millions of years. above: a hand-sized cut slab of limestone, dating from early Carboniferous times (~340 million years ago), with fossil exoskeletons of ancient corals, consisting of calcium carbonate obtained by the organisms from the seawater back at that time.