[10], The almond is native to Iran and surrounding countries. In the United States, production is concentrated in California where 1,000,000 acres (400,000 ha) and six different almond varieties were under cultivation in 2017, with a yield of 2.25 billion lb (1.02 billion kg) of shelled almonds. I knew it was near daylight since the village mullah was giving the call to prayer over the loudspeaker. This does not apply to imported almonds[69] or almonds sold from the grower directly to the consumer in small quantities. [17] The al- in English, for the a- used in other languages may be due a confusion with the Arabic article al, the word having first dropped the a- as in the Italian form mandorla; the British pronunciation ah-mond and the modern Catalan ametlla and modern French amande show a form of the word closer to the original. The leaves are 8–13 cm (3–5 in) long,[5] with a serrated margin and a 2.5 cm (1 in) petiole. The European Union, for example, introduced a requirement since 2007 that all almond shipments to EU be tested for aflatoxin. In Moroccan cuisine, sharbat billooz is one of the best known beverages, served for weddings, it is made by blending blanched almonds with milk, sugar and other flavorings. Almond oil is known to stimulate hair growth. [34], Australia is the largest almond production region in the Southern Hemisphere. [18] Interestingly however, in Hebrew, the word for almond (שָׁקֵד, pronounced shak-ed) is also the word for tonsil. [30] California production is marked by a period of intense pollination during late winter by rented commercial bees transported by truck across the United States to almond groves, requiring more than half of the total US honeybee population. Almonds have always been high in demand, thanks to their nutritional properties and health benefits. La entrada de la flor is an event celebrated on 1 February in Torrent, Spain, in which the clavarios and members of the Confrerie of the Mother of God deliver a branch of the first-blooming almond-tree to the Virgin. One ounce (About 28 Grams) of almond provides: Mistakenly considered as a nut by many, Almond, in reality, is not a nut but a Drupe fruit, growing on Prunus dulcis tree. [7][9], The almond fruit is 3.5–6 cm (1 3⁄8–2 3⁄8 in) long. The trees are obtained from seeds, with India as the primary export market. In 2018, world production of almonds grew by 45% over the 2017 volume to 3.2 million tonnes, with the United States providing 59% of the world total. Some countries have strict limits on allowable levels of aflatoxin contamination of almonds and require adequate testing before the nuts can be marketed to their citizens. [43], All commercially grown almonds sold as food in the United States are sweet cultivars. In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) reference amount, almonds supply 2,420 kilojoules (579 kilocalories) of food energy. Marzipan is used in a number of elegant cakes and desserts. [75], The examples and perspective in this section, illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen, 1897. The country cultivates both the sweet variety and bittersweet varieties. The USDA approved a proposal by the Almond Board of California to pasteurize almonds sold to the public, after tracing cases of salmonellosis to almonds. The almond is highly revered in some cultures. Other related names of almond include Mandel or Knackmandel (German), mandorlo (Italian for the tree), mandorla (Italian for the fruit), amêndoa (Portuguese), and almendro (Spanish for the tree), almendra (Spanish for the fruit). In August 2010, a federal appeals court ruled that the farmers have a right to appeal the USDA regulation. [44], Extract of bitter almond was once used medicinally but even in small doses, effects are severe or lethal, especially in children; the cyanide must be removed before consumption. In relation to total dry mass of the kernel, almond oil contains 32% monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 13% linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 10% saturated fatty acid (mainly as palmitic acid, USDA link in table). The biggest producer of almonds in the world is the United States. [53][54], Historically, almond syrup was an emulsion of sweet and bitter almonds, usually made with barley syrup (orgeat syrup) or in a syrup of orange flower water and sugar, often flavored with a synthetic aroma of almonds. The tree originated in the Middle East,[73] and is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. The fruit is somewhat sour, but is a popular snack in parts of the Middle East, eaten dipped in salt to balance the sour taste. Almonds are a moderate source (10–19% DV) of the B vitamins thiamine, vitamin B6, and folate, choline, and the essential mineral potassium. The young, developing fruit of the almond tree can be eaten whole (green almonds) when they are still green and fleshy on the outside and the inner shell has not yet hardened. amara are always bitter, as are the kernels from other species of genus Prunus, such as apricot, peach and cherry (although to a lesser extent). The Tuono's shell protects the nut from threatening pests such as the navel orangeworm. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting. The fruits from Prunus dulcis var. Almonds are native to Iran and later spread to South-West Europe and Northern Africa. The almond is a deciduous tree, growing 4–10 m (13–33 ft) in height, with a trunk of up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. [12], Selection of the sweet type from the many bitter types in the wild marked the beginning of almond domestication. Oleum amygdalae, the fixed oil, is prepared from either sweet or bitter almonds, and is a glyceryl oleate with a slight odour and a nutty taste. Another well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt (c. 1325 BC), probably imported from the Levant. Princess cake is covered by marzipan (similar to fondant), as is Battenberg cake. Similarly, Christian symbolism often uses almond branches as a symbol of the Virgin Birth of Jesus; paintings and icons often include almond-shaped haloes encircling the Christ Child and as a symbol of Mary. Also in the Middle East they are often eaten with dates. Almond oil is a rich source of vitamin E, providing 261% of the Daily Value per 100 ml (table). The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside. [citation needed] In the Bible the almond is mentioned ten times, beginning with Book of Genesis 43:11, where it is described as "among the best of fruits". In the Hebrew Bible, the almond was a symbol of watchfulness and promise due to its early flowering. It is almost insoluble in alcohol but readily soluble in chloroform or ether. Apply Nitrogen-rich fertilizer or compost during spring. The word "almond" comes from Old French almande or alemande, Late Latin *amandula, derived from amygdala from the Ancient Greek ἀμυγδάλη (amygdálē) (cf. [21], A grove of almond trees in central California, An almond shaker before and during a harvest of a tree, Almond trees can be attacked by an array of damaging organisms, including insects, fungal pathogens, plant viruses, and bacteria.