People Involved in the Invention of Electromagnetism Most of the leading physicists worked on the property of electromagnetism including Andre Marie Ampere, Hans Christian Oersted, Edmond Halley, James Clerk Maxwell, William Gilbert, Ben Franklin, Charles Austin de coulomb, Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta, Michael Faraday, and Heinrich Hertz In the year 1812, Michael Faraday (1791-1867) the English chemist and physicist was able to reach for the fact of the electromagnetic field. One of the first to discover and publish a link between man-made electric current and magnetism was Gian Romagnosi, who in 1802 not… Two British scientists, Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) and Sir James Hopwood Jeans, had by 1900 applied the newly developed science of statistical mechanics to the same problem. Mathematically manipulating these equations, Maxwell found the equation that describes waves. Lenz belongs to this period. Later he explained that electricity and magnetism are transmitted through a medium that is the site of electric or magnetic “fields,” which make all substances magnetic to some extent. In the year 1820, after few days from Hans Christian Ørsted discovery, Ampère had reached to the same relation between electricity and magnetism. The link between lightning and electricity was not confirmed until Benjamin Franklin's proposed experiments in 1752. They obtained results that, though in agreement with Wien’s thermodynamic conclusions (as distinct from his speculative extensions of thermodynamics), only partially agreed with experimental observations. The German physicist Max Planck attempted to combine the statistical approach with a thermodynamic approach. From then until the end of the century, the properties of cathode-ray discharges were studied intensively. Finally, superconductivity was discovered in 1900 by the German physicist Heike Kammerlingh-Onnes. When Planck interpreted this law in terms of Rayleigh’s statistical concepts, he concluded that radiation of frequency ν exists only in quanta of energy. Faraday, the greatest experimentalist in electricity and magnetism of the 19th century and one of the greatest experimental physicists of all time, worked on and off for 10 years trying to prove that a magnet could induce electricity. In 1857 Kirchhoff used this finding to demonstrate that electric disturbances propagate on a highly conductive wire with the speed of light. Four years later, Plücker sealed two electrodes inside the tube, evacuated the air, and forced electric currents between the electrodes; he attributed the green glow that appeared on the wall of the tube to rays emanating from the cathode. In 1831 he finally succeeded by using two coils of wire wound around opposite sides of a ring of soft iron (Figure 7). The tension they build explains the attraction and repulsion of magnets and electric charges. By 1900 it was apparent that Thomson’s electrons were a universal constituent of matter and, thus, that matter is essentially electric in nature. In the year 1873, James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) the Scottish mathematician and physicist was able to combine electricity with magnetism along with the light in a theory. He explained how a substance loses its magnetic properties when the molecular magnets point in random directions. Heinrich Geissler, a glassblower who assisted the German physicist Julius Plücker, improved the vacuum tube in 1854. In the year 1832, Hippolyte Pixii (1808-1835) a French machines maker used the concepts of Michael Faraday and was able to manufacture the Dynamo. Maxwell’s four field equations represent the pinnacle of classical electromagnetic theory. In 1895 Pierre Curie of France discovered that a ferromagnetic substance has a specific temperature above which it ceases to be magnetic. Subsequent developments in the theory have been concerned either with the relationship between electromagnetism and the atomic structure of matter or with the practical and theoretical consequences of Maxwell’s equations. Within a few months, Faraday built the first, albeit primitive, electric generator. Although little of major importance was added to electromagnetic theory in the 19th century after Maxwell, the discovery of the electron in 1898 opened up an entirely new area of study: the nature of electric charge and of matter itself. When the first circuit was turned on, Faraday observed a momentary deflection of the compass needle and its immediate return to its original position. Helmholtz, Thomson, Henry, Gustav Kirchhoff, and Sir George Gabriel Stokes also extended the theory of the conduction and propagation of electric effects in conductors.