We have to understand the grammar. The man is deciding not to eat the bread.Ich kann mir nicht leisten, ein neues Auto zu kaufen. Es ist nicht gut, immer etwas essen zu wollen. Sie bekam die Spinne nicht zu sehen.She didn’t get to see the spider.Die Spinne bekommt Klaus’ Zorn zu spüren.The spider was subjected to Klaus’s fury. Es wird ihm eine Freude gewesen sein, die Kinder wiederzusehen. Das ist alles für heute. I have not visited the Universum. Certain verbs in German will often be followed by an infinitival clause. (neue Computerspiele kaufen) Answer: um neue Computerspiele zu kaufen. With Lingolia Plus you can access 8 additional exercises about Infinitive with/without zu, as well as 846 online exercises to improve your German. It had been a joy for him to see the children again. In the first clause the ambiguous “es” (it) is the subject whereas the second clause implies that “er” (he) is the subject. He takes his toys and goes home. In the interactive exercises you can test your knowledge. Deutschlerner: Ich will heute Deutsch zu lernen. “Dass” generally is translated as “that”, but this logic doesn’t always work out. It is important to note that these words actually just facilitate the creation of a dependent clause and are not actually the cause of the infinitive clause. Er geht nach Hause, ohne seinen Freunden “auf Wiedersehen” zu sagen. German Learner: That’s enough. Become a Lingolia Plus member to access these additional exercises. He went home because he was annoyed. You choose between “haben” and “sein” in the same way you usually would for the Perfekt tense. If there is a link that leads to Amazon, it is very likely an affiliate link for which Herr Antrim will receive a small portion of your purchase. Wir versprechen, vor nächstem Donnerstag den Aufsatz geschrieben zu haben. Why don’t you use “zu” with them. Notice that in English we use the verb form with -ing at the end with “instead of” and “without”, but an infinitive clause with “to” when we use “in order”. Er entfernt seine Fingerabdrücke. As mentioned before the subject of the dependent clause is not explicitly stated, which is why we still use the “zu” plus an infinitive. The spider was subjected to Klaus’s fury. He attempts to explain the grammar to us. If we drop the subject out of the second half of a normal sentence, the infinitive clause is not needed. You can’t really explicitly use any of the tenses except the past in an infinitive clause. I am going to eat now. → Don’t run away! The child forgets to feed the dog.Der Mann entscheidet sich, das Brot nicht zu essen. The subject is not present in a dependent clause, but I thought it would be helpful to see some examples like that, too. I cannot afford to buy a new car.Der Bauer traut sich nicht, mit den Bullen zu rennen. To make sure that you understand the correct answers, our answer keys offer simple explanations as well as handy tips and tricks. Ich gehe jetzt zu essen. It is tragic to see this man like this. He hopes to have passed the test. In this German grammar lesson I’ll explain when you need to use “zu” with an infinitive and when you don’t. Er erklärt uns die Grammatik. In this example, the verb was pushed to the end of the sentence, but the subject is still there to tell the verb which form to take. And I’ll show you how these German infinitive clauses with “zu” differ from relative clauses with “dass”. Deutschlerner: AHHHH!!! The criminal forgot to remove his fingerprints. Diese Aufgabe ist unbedingt zu machen.This task absoluetly must be done.Es ist nicht auszuhalten.It’s unbearable. The meaning of "zu" in German "Zu" is a word that can create a lot of confusion amongst people that are starting to learn German. For example: Ich habe große Angst davor, meine Prüfung abzulegen. 3. Es ist besser zweimal nachzudenken als sich einmal entschuldigen zu müssen. It was a joy for him to see the children again. I want you to want me. What is going on? He explains the grammar to us. You shouldn’t run away. Ich war oft in Bremen. If you do want to show a desire for someone else to do something after “Lust haben”, you can do so, but you have to go back to using “dass” and no infinitive clause. Deutschlerner: Jetzt reicht’s! Sometimes you need “zu”. Anyway… so, a boring simple sentence consists of an action (represented by the verb), a subject, which is the entity “doing” the action, and some other blocks of information that give answers to various questions like why, where orwhen orfor what purpose. 1. The farmer doesn’t dare run with the bulls. In connection with the verbs lernen, helfen and lehren we can use the infinitive with or without zu. Ich will Deutsch lernen. These generally have to do with adding an adverb or adjective to describe the action that takes place in the dependent clause. When Do We Use Infinitive + Zu? Sie sagt sich: „Ich brauche keine Angst zu haben, diese kleine Spinne kann mir nichts tun!“, und versucht weiterzuessen. Infinitive clauses are a type of dependent clause that don’t technically have a subject. In connection with the verbs lernen, helfen and lehren we can use the infinitive with or without zu.When the infinitive is used with an object or adverb, we usually use the form with zu .. He removes his fingerprints. Here are a few examples of that. When Zu Is Used in Infinitive Clauses. We promise to have written the essay before next Thursday. Haben Sie Lust, dass wir Ihnen die Stadt zeigen? Some verbs change their meaning when they are used together with the infinitive with zu. Sometimes you don’t. The subject is generally shown in the first clause and the infinitive clause implies that same subject, but it doesn’t have to be this way. Ich habe vor, heute Abend ins Kino zu gehen. It is better to think twice than to have to apologize once. Back to the examples that do use infinitive clauses. We also use the infinitive with zu after certain words and expressions in subordinate clauses (see Infinitive Clauses). You can kind of imply all of the other tenses through the main clause, for example: Es ist ihm eine Freude, die Kinder wiederzusehen. In 2011 he started his successful YouTube Channel "Learn German with Herr Antrim". The bottom line is still the same, however. Coordinating Conjunctions in German: und, oder, aber, denn & more! The spider continued to hang in front of her face. Susi springt auf und läuft schreiend Hilfe holen. If you have different subjects, this construction usually doesn’t work. He plans to go skiing in the Alps. The phrases that use “zu” plus an infinitive are called infinitive clauses. He wants her to cook him dinner. Sie sind in die U-Bahn gesprungen. In the sentence, "Es war meine Gewohnheit früh aufzustehen", the temporal context is provided by the simple-past form of the finite verb in the main clause ("Es war meine Gewohnheit"). Wir müssen die Grammatik verstehen. To form the Perfekt tense, you use a past participle and a helper, either “haben” or “sein”. When you use a modal verb, you put the modal verb directly after “zu” and the other verb directly before it. Now that you are all experts with regards to infinitive clauses in German, you can practice what you have learned in this lesson with a worksheet right here. Sie behauptet, ihr Handy verloren zu haben. Susi sieht eine Spinne von der Decke krabbeln. ⇒ Ich schlage eine Handlung vor: "gehen" ⇒ zu + infinitive; You could also express it with a dass-clause: „Ich schlage vor, dass wir heute Abend ins Kino gehen.“; We can only use infinitive + zu when the subject in the subordinate clause isn't important or it's obvious from the context. German Learner: I want to learn German today. The devil convinces the man to sell his soul.Herr Antrim erlaubt den Schülern, Wasser im Klassenzimmer zu trinken.Herr Antrim allows the students to drink water in the classroom.Die Frau hilft dem Mann, sein Auto zu reparieren. The same reasons as before. There are, however, certain times when you can use the object of one clause as the subject of the next or the subject of the dependent clause is simply different than the first clause. He found out that he won the lottery. Er hofft, die Prüfung bestanden zu haben. Es ist ihm eine Freude gewesen, die Kinder wiederzusehen. In German, the comma matters as it separates the two ideas. Es war ihm eine Freude gewesen, die Kinder wiederzusehen. Er möchte, dass sie ihm Abendessen kocht. It is nice to meet you. In the meantime, here are a few examples of the Perfekt tense with infinitive clauses. If you want to show for sure that the dependent clause and subsequently the infinitive clause is taking place in the past, you need to use a version of the Perfekt tense.